A resume is typically a one-page document that includes your educational and work history, with key accomplishments and awards highlighted with bullet points. Your name and contact information go on the top of your resume, and you may also want to include a summary or objective statement. If you're applying for a senior executive position, it's possible that a resume will spill over onto a second page, but do your best to keep it to one.
A curriculum vitae can stretch longer than one page and includes more details about research and publications you've authored, as well as honors, awards and affiliations. Typically, a CV, unlike a resume, is the norm when applying for academic or research positions. In both a CV and a resume, you'll use active language to describe your accomplishments, and tailor your skills, experience and interests to fit the job for which you're applying.
In the U.S., the norm is a resume, versus the CV, which is more often seen in Europe and Asia. When in doubt, ask your mentor which document is more appropriate for a given position. Regardless of the name for your resume or CV, make sure to apply your best resume writing tips when putting together this important document to give the story of your career in an easy-to-understand format for prospective employers.